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Week of...

Videos, Notes, and Links

1

Sep 7

About This Class 0909101: 3colourings, Reidemeister's theorem, invariance, the Kauffman bracket. 0909102: R23 invariance of the bracket, R1, the writhe, the Jones polynomial, programming the Jones polynomial. Tricolourability

2

Sep 14

090915: More on Jones, some pathologies and more on Reidemeister, our overall agenda. 0909171: The definition of finite type, weight systems, Jones is a finite type series. 0909172: The skein relation for Jones; HOMFLYPT and Conway; the weight system of Jones.

3

Sep 21

090922: FI, 4T, HOMFLY and FI and 4T, statement of the Fundamental Theorem, framed knots. 0909241: Some dimensions of ${\mathcal {A}}_{n}$, ${\mathcal {A}}$ is a commutative algebra, ${\mathcal {A}}(\bigcirc )\equiv {\mathcal {A}}(\uparrow )$. Class Photo 0909242: ${\mathcal {A}}$ is a cocommutative algebra, the relation with products of invariants, ${\mathcal {A}}$ is a bialgebra.

4

Sep 28

Homework Assignment 1 Homework Assignment 1 Solutions 090929: The MilnorMoore theorem, primitives, the map ${\mathcal {A}}^{r}\to {\mathcal {A}}$. 0910011: Jacobi diagrams, AS, IHX, STU, and the equivalence of all that with 4T. 0910012: The very basics on Lie algebras.

5

Oct 5

091006: Lie algebraic weight systems, $gl_{N}$. 0910081: More on $gl_{N}$, Lie algebras and the four colour theorem. 0910082: The "abstract tenssor" approach to weight systems, ${\mathcal {U}}({\mathfrak {g}})$ and PBW, the map ${\mathcal {T}}_{\mathfrak {g}}$.

6

Oct 12

091013: Algebraic properties of ${\mathcal {U}}({\mathfrak {g}})$ vs. algebraic properties of ${\mathcal {A}}$. Thursday's class canceled.

7

Oct 19

091020: Universal finite type invariants, filtered and graded spaces, expansions. Homework Assignment 2 The Stonehenge Story 0910221: The Stonehenge Story to IHX and STU. 0910222: The Stonhenge Story: anomalies, framings, relation with physics.

8

Oct 26

091027: Knotted trivalent graphs and their chord diagrams. 0910291: Zsuzsi Dancso on the Kontsevich Integral (1). 0910292: Zsuzsi Dancso on the Kontsevich Integral (2).

9

Nov 2

091103: The details of ${\mathcal {A}}^{TG}$. 0911051: Three basic problems: genus, unknotting numbers, ribbon knots. 0911052: The three basic problems and algebraic knot theory.

10

Nov 9

091110: Tangles and planar algebras, shielding and the generators of KTG. Homework Assignment 3 No Thursday class.

11

Nov 16

Local Khovanov Homology 0911191: Local Khovanov homology, I. 0911192: Local Khovanov homology, II.

12

Nov 23

091124: Emulation of one structure inside another, deriving the pentagon. 0911261: Peter Lee on braided monoidal categories, I. 0911262: Peter Lee on braided monoidal categories, II.

13

Nov 30

091201: The relations in KTG. 0912031: The Existence of the Exponential Function. 0912032: The Final Exam, Dror's failures.

F

Dec 7

The Final Exam on Thu Dec 10, 911, Bahen 6183.

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The tricolourability criterion for knot diagrams may be equivalently expressed as: is it possible to associate to each arc (not 'strand' since you are allowed to change color after an undercrossing; this allowance makes sense because otherwise we would end up with a single color for the whole knot; see example of how to colour a knot diagram and a picture proof that tricolourability is a isotopy invariant at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tricolorability) a member of Z/3Z such that, for each crossing, the sum of the three numbers associated to the three arcs involved is 0 mod 3 (that is, the three numbers are either all distinct or all the same) while excluding the case of associating the same number to every arc?
This fact can be exploited to give an algorithm for determining tricolourability of a knot diagram whose complexity is polynomial in the number of crossings. (A naive test which tried all possible colourings would require 3^(number of arcs) checks.)
Define the variables $S_{1},...,S_{n}$ which are associated with the arcs of a knot diagram D. Each crossing yields an equation of the form $S_{a}+S_{b}+S_{c}=0$. We can also (without loss of generality) assume $S_{1}=0$. Let M be the matrix over Z/3Z encoding the aforementioned relations. The nullity of M is nonzero if and only if there is a valid tricolouring of D.