Difference between revisions of "User:Trefor"
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NOTE: This page is used as a placeholder for incomplete typed class notes.  NOTE: This page is used as a placeholder for incomplete typed class notes.  
+  
+  {{07081300/Navigation}}  
+  
+  ==A Homology Theory is a Monster==  
+  [[Image:07081300AxiomsForHomology.pngthumbcenter540pxPage 183 of Bredon's book]]  
+  
+  '''Bredon's Plan of Attack:''' State all, apply all, prove all.  
+  
+  '''Our Route:''' Axiom by axiom  state, apply, prove. Thus everything we will do will be, or should be, labeled either "'''S'''tate" or "'''P'''rove" or "'''A'''pply".  
==Typed Notes==  ==Typed Notes==  
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<span style="color: red;">The notes below are by the students and for the students. Hopefully they are useful, but they come with no guarantee of any kind.</span>  <span style="color: red;">The notes below are by the students and for the students. Hopefully they are useful, but they come with no guarantee of any kind.</span>  
+  ===First Hour===  
−  
−  
−  +  Recall we had defined for a chain complex the associated homology groups: <math>H_p(C_*) :=\ ker\partial_p/im\partial_{p+1}</math>  
−  +  From this we get the pth homology for a topological space <math>H_p(X)</math>  
−  +  We have previously shown that  
+  ''1) <math>H_p(\cup X) = \oplus H_p(X_i)</math> for disjoint unions of spaces <math>X_i</math>  
−  +  2) <math>H_p(pt) = \mathbb{Z}\delta_{p0}</math>  
−  <math>  +  
−  +  
+  3) <math>H_0(connected) = \mathbb{Z}</math>  
−  +  4) <math>H_1(connected) \cong \pi_1^{ab}(X)</math> via the map  
+  <math>\phi:[\gamma]_{\pi_1^{ab}}\mapsto[\gamma]_{H_1}</math>  
−  +  <math>\psi:\sigma\in C_1\mapsto[\gamma_{\sigma(0)}\sigma\bar{\gamma_{\sigma(1)}}]</math> where <math>\sigma_x</math> is a path connecting <math>x_0</math> to x.  
−  
+  We need to check the maps are in fact inverses of each other.  
−  '''  +  Lets consider <math>\psi\circ\phi</math>. We start with a closed path starting at <math>x_0</math> (thought of as in the fundamental group). <math>\phi</math> means we now think of it as a simplex in X with a point at <math>x_0</math>. <math>\Psi</math> now takes this to the path that parks at <math>x_0</math> for a third of the time, goes around the loop and then parks for the remaining third of the time. Clearly this is homotopic this composition is homotopic to the identity. 
+  
+  We now consider <math>\phi\circ\psi</math>. Start with just a path <math>\sigma</math>. Then <math>\psi</math> makes a loop adding two paths from the <math>x_0</math> to the start and finish of <math>\sigma</math> forming a triangular like closed loop. We think of this loop as <math>\sigma'\in C_1</math>  
+  
+  Now, we start from c being <math>c = \sum a_i\sigma_i</math> with <math>\partial c = 0</math>. So get <math>\sum a_i(\partial \sigma_1) = \sum a_i(\sigma_i(1)\sigma_i(0))</math>  
+  
+  So <math>\Psi(c) = [\gamma_{\sigma_i(0)}\sigma_i\bar{\gamma_{\sigma_i(1)}}]_{\pi_1}</math> which maps to, under <math>\phi</math>, <math>\sum a_i(\gamma_{\sigma_i(0)} + \sigma_i  \gamma_{\sigma_i(1)}) = \sum a_i\sigma_i = c</math> ( in the homology gamma's cancel as <math>\partial c = 0</math>)  
+  
+  
+  ''Axiomized Homology''  
+  
+  We now will move to an approach where we prove that our defined homology satisfies a series of established homology axioms that will allow us to apply the machinery of general homology to our specific "singular" homology defined via simplices.  
+  
+  Axiom 0) Homology if a function  
+  
+  '''Definition''' The "category of chain complexes" is a category whose objects are chain complexes (of abelian groups) and morphisms which is a homomorphism between each abelian group in one chain and the corresponding group in the other chain such that the resulting diagram commutes. I.e, <math>Mor((C_p)_{p=0}^{\infty}, (D_p)^{\infty}_{p=0}) = \{(f_p:C_p\rightarrow D_p)_{p=0}^{\infty}\ \ f_{p1}\partial_p^C=\partial_p^D f_p\}</math>  
+  
+  
+  Now, in our case, the chain complexes do in fact commute because <math>\partial</math> is defined by precomposition but f is defined by postcomposition. Hence, associativity of composition yields commutativity.  
+  
+  
+  '''Claim'''  
+  
+  Homology of chain complexes is a functor in the natural way. That is, if <math>f_p:C_p\rightarrow D_p</math> for each p induces the functor <math>f_*:H_p(C_*)\rightarrow H_p(D_*)</math>  
+  
+  The proof is by "diagram chasing". Well, let <math>c\in C_p</math>, <math>\partial c =0</math>.  
+  
+  Let <math>f*[c] = [fc]</math>. Now <math>\partial fc = f\partial c = 0</math>. Furthermore, suppose <math>c = \partial b</math>. Then, <math>f_*c = fc = \partial fb</math> so therefore <math>fc = \partial\beta</math> some <math>\beta</math>. This shows <math>f_*</math> is well defined.  
+  
+  Thus, for <math>c\in H_p(C_*)</math> get <math>fc\in H_p(D_*)</math> via the well defined functor <math>f_*</math>.  
+  
+  
+  ===Second Hour===  
+  
+  '''1) Homotopy Axioms'''  
+  
+  If f,g:X\rightarrow Y are homotopic then g_* = g_*: H_p(X)\rightarrow H_p(Y)  
+  
+  
+  Applications: If X and Y are homotopy equivalent then H_*(X) \cong H_*(Y)  
+  
+  ''Proof:''  
+  
+  let f:X\rightarrow Y, g:Y\rightarrow X such that f\circ g\sim id_y and g\circ f \sim id_x. Well f_*\circ g_* = id_{H(Y)} and g_*\circ f_* = id_{H(X)}  
+  
+  Hence, f_* and g_* are invertible maps of each other. ''Q.E.D''  
+  
+  
+  '''Definition'''  
−  +  Two morphisms f,g:C_*\rightarrow D_* between chain complexes are ''homotopic'' if you can find maps h_p:C_p\rightarrow D_{p+1} such that f_p  g_p = \partial_{p+1} h_p = h_{p1}\partial_p  
−  
+  '''Claim 1'''  
−  +  Given H a homotopy connecting f,g:X\rightarrow Y we can construct a chain homotopy between f_*,g_*:C_*(X)\rightarrow C_*(Y)  
−  
−  +  '''Claim 2'''  
+  If f,g:C_*\rightarrow C_* are chain homotopic then they induce equal maps on homology.  
−  
−  
−  +  ''Proof of 2''  
−  +  Assume [c]\in H_p(C_*), that is, \partial c =0  
+  [f_* c]  [g_* c] = [(f_*g_*)] =[(\partial h + h\partial)c] = 0 (as \partial c = 0 and homology ignores exact forms)  
−  +  Hence, at the level of homology they are the same.  
−  +  ''Proof of 1''  
+  Consider a simplex in X. Now consider its image, a simplex, in Y under g and f respectively. Because of the homotopy we can construct a triangular based cylinder in Y with the image under f at the top and the image under y at the bottom.  
−  +  Define h\sigma = the above prism formed by \sigma and the homotopy H.  
−  +  
−  \  +  
−  +  (f_*g_*)\sigma = h\partial\sigma = \partial h\sigma  
−  +  This, pictorially is correct but we need to be able to break up the prism into a union of images of simplexes.  
−  +  Suppose 
Revision as of 18:46, 7 March 2008

NOTE: This page is used as a placeholder for incomplete typed class notes.

Contents 
A Homology Theory is a Monster
Bredon's Plan of Attack: State all, apply all, prove all.
Our Route: Axiom by axiom  state, apply, prove. Thus everything we will do will be, or should be, labeled either "State" or "Prove" or "Apply".
Typed Notes
The notes below are by the students and for the students. Hopefully they are useful, but they come with no guarantee of any kind.
First Hour
Recall we had defined for a chain complex the associated homology groups:
From this we get the pth homology for a topological space
We have previously shown that
1) for disjoint unions of spaces
2)
3)
4) via the map
where is a path connecting to x.
We need to check the maps are in fact inverses of each other.
Lets consider . We start with a closed path starting at (thought of as in the fundamental group). means we now think of it as a simplex in X with a point at . now takes this to the path that parks at for a third of the time, goes around the loop and then parks for the remaining third of the time. Clearly this is homotopic this composition is homotopic to the identity.
We now consider . Start with just a path . Then makes a loop adding two paths from the to the start and finish of forming a triangular like closed loop. We think of this loop as
Now, we start from c being with . So get
So which maps to, under , ( in the homology gamma's cancel as )
Axiomized Homology
We now will move to an approach where we prove that our defined homology satisfies a series of established homology axioms that will allow us to apply the machinery of general homology to our specific "singular" homology defined via simplices.
Axiom 0) Homology if a function
Definition The "category of chain complexes" is a category whose objects are chain complexes (of abelian groups) and morphisms which is a homomorphism between each abelian group in one chain and the corresponding group in the other chain such that the resulting diagram commutes. I.e,
Now, in our case, the chain complexes do in fact commute because is defined by precomposition but f is defined by postcomposition. Hence, associativity of composition yields commutativity.
Claim
Homology of chain complexes is a functor in the natural way. That is, if for each p induces the functor
The proof is by "diagram chasing". Well, let , .
Let . Now . Furthermore, suppose . Then, so therefore some . This shows is well defined.
Thus, for get via the well defined functor .
Second Hour
1) Homotopy Axioms
If f,g:X\rightarrow Y are homotopic then g_* = g_*: H_p(X)\rightarrow H_p(Y)
Applications: If X and Y are homotopy equivalent then H_*(X) \cong H_*(Y)
Proof:
let f:X\rightarrow Y, g:Y\rightarrow X such that f\circ g\sim id_y and g\circ f \sim id_x. Well f_*\circ g_* = id_{H(Y)} and g_*\circ f_* = id_{H(X)}
Hence, f_* and g_* are invertible maps of each other. Q.E.D
Definition
Two morphisms f,g:C_*\rightarrow D_* between chain complexes are homotopic if you can find maps h_p:C_p\rightarrow D_{p+1} such that f_p  g_p = \partial_{p+1} h_p = h_{p1}\partial_p
Claim 1
Given H a homotopy connecting f,g:X\rightarrow Y we can construct a chain homotopy between f_*,g_*:C_*(X)\rightarrow C_*(Y)
Claim 2
If f,g:C_*\rightarrow C_* are chain homotopic then they induce equal maps on homology.
Proof of 2
Assume [c]\in H_p(C_*), that is, \partial c =0
[f_* c]  [g_* c] = [(f_*g_*)] =[(\partial h + h\partial)c] = 0 (as \partial c = 0 and homology ignores exact forms)
Hence, at the level of homology they are the same.
Proof of 1
Consider a simplex in X. Now consider its image, a simplex, in Y under g and f respectively. Because of the homotopy we can construct a triangular based cylinder in Y with the image under f at the top and the image under y at the bottom.
Define h\sigma = the above prism formed by \sigma and the homotopy H.
(f_*g_*)\sigma = h\partial\sigma = \partial h\sigma
This, pictorially is correct but we need to be able to break up the prism into a union of images of simplexes.
Suppose