07081300/Class notes for Tuesday, October 9
Contents 
Class Notes
The notes below are by the students and for the students. Hopefully they are useful, but they come with no guarantee of any kind.
Scanned Notes

Typed Notes  First Hour
Reminder:
1) An immersion locally looks like given by
2) A submersion locally looks like given by
Today's Goals
1) More about "locally things look like their differential"
2) The trick Sard's Theorem: "Evil points are rare, good points everywhere"
Definition 1
Let be smooth. A point is critical if is not onto rank . Otherwise, p is regular.
Definition 2
A point is a critical value of f if such that p is critical and . Otherwise, y is a regular value
Example 1
Consider the map given by . I.e., the projection map. The regular points are all the points on except the equator. The regular values, however, are all such that
Example 2
Consider given by . That is, . Clearly and so p is regular
So, the critical values are the image of zero, thus only zero. All other are regular values.
Note: In both the last two examples there were points in the target space that were NOT hit by the function and thus are vacuously regular. In the previous example these are the point x<0.
Example 3
Consider a function from a segment in onto a curve in such that is never zero. Thus, rank() and so is never onto. Hence, ALL points are critical in the segment. The points on the curve are critical values, as they are images of critical points, and all points in NOT on the curve are vacuously regular.
Theorem 1
Sard's Theorem
Almost every is regular the set of critical values of f is of measure zero.
Note: The measure is not specified (indeed, for a topological space there is no canonical measure defined). However the statement will be true for any measure.
Theorem 2
If is smooth and y is a regular value then is an embedded submanifold of of dimension mn.
Re: Example 2
is a sphere and hence (again!) the sphere is a manifold
Re: Example 3
for regular y is empty and hence we get the trivial result that the empty set is a manifold
Proof of Theorem 2
Let is smooth and y is a regular value. Pick a . p is a regular point and thus is onto. Hence, by the submersion property (Reminder 2) we can find a "good charts" thats maps a neighborhood U of p by projection to a neighborhood V about y. Indeed, on U f looks like by .
So. Q.E.D
Diversion
Arbitrary objects can be described in two ways:
1) With a constructive definition
2) with an implicit definition
For example, a constructive definition of lines in is given by but implicitly they are the solutions to the equations and .
Hence in general, a constructive definition can be given in terms of an image and an implicit definition can be given in terms of a kernal.
Homological algebra is concerned with the difference between these philosophical approaches.
Remark
For submanifolds of smooth manifolds, there is no difference between the methods of definition.
Definition 3
Loosely we have the idea that a concave and convex curve which just touch at a tangent point is a "bad" intersection as it is unstable under small perturbation where as the intersection point in an X (thought of as being in ) is a "good" intersection as it IS stable under small perturbations.
Precisely,
Let be smooth submanifolds. Let
We say is transverse to in M at p if for and satisfies
Example 4
Our concave intersecting with convex curve example intersecting tangentially has both of their tangent spaces at the intersection point being the same line and thus does not intersect transversally as the sum of the tangent spaces is not all of .
Our X example does however work.
Typed Notes  Second Hour
Coming soon to a wikipedia near you.